Artistic Theologian Volume 11 (2024)

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1. Editorial: The Relationship of Doxology and Doctrine
Joshua A. Waggener. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

2. “The Only True Beauty” in the Paedagogus: The Centrality of Christ in Clement of Alexandria’s Aesthetics
Daniel Aaron Webster. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

3. Theology Inspiring Doxology: The Hymnic Language of Anne Dutton and Anne Steele
Holly M. Farrow. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

4. Thomas Hastings and the First American Sacred Cantata
David W. Music. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41

5. Wrath in Worship?: An Analysis of the “Wrath of God” Controversy Surrounding Getty and Townend’s “In Christ Alone”
James Cheesman. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55

6. Worship—Before and After: Completing the Ethnodoxology Cycle
John L. Benham. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73

7. Abstracts of Recent SWBTS School of Church Music and
Worship Doctoral Dissertations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89

Book Reviews. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94

Book Review Index. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123



Joshua A. Waggener

Doxology has been defined as a “formula for expressing praise or glory to God.” In New Testament language, a doxological expression becomes a “sacrifice of praise, … the fruit of lips that acknowledge [Jesus’s] name” (Heb. 13:15, ESV), given through Christ to God as an appropriate response to Christ’s atoning work.

Christian churches most often offer their doxology through singing. In many churches, the doxology offered is sincere and simple, unadorned with poetic or musical artifice. The Lord despises not, looking at the heart (1 Sam. 16:7).

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“THE ONLY TRUE BEAUTY” IN THE PAEDAGOGUS: The Centrality of Christ in Clement of Alexandria’s Aesthetics

Daniel Aaron Webster

In 2013, George Zografidis questioned whether an early Christian aes­thetics is possible. Two of his five “tentative answers” are justifications for my research: “Patristic aesthetics is possible if the church fathers discussed aesthetic problems,” even though the Fathers did not qualify them as aesthetical issues in their time, and “Patristic aesthetics is possible if it can fertilize contemporary theological and aesthetic-philosophical thought.” In this article, I will attempt to formalize Clement of Alexandria’s (ca. 150–ca. 215) aesthetics by examining his views on beauty in the Paedagogus, giving special attention to his vision of Christ as the only true Beauty.

Since art is a major aspect of aesthetics, we must consider Clement’s views on art at least briefly. Although he does not apply his aesthetics to art in the Paedagogus, he was not silent about art. As a student of Greek philosophy and culture and as a member of the Alexandrian community, Clement was well acquainted with centuries of Greek thought and art. In the Protrepticus, Clement engages Classical and Hellenistic Greek sculptors and painters such as Pheidias (ca. 480–430 BC), Polycleitus (ca. 480–420 BC), Praxiteles (ca. 395–330 BC), and Apelles (ca. 352–308 BC). Although he is critical of art, Clement notes the skill of the craftsman. As Frederick Norwood has observed, “There is a place, then, with Clement, for artistic appreciation.” In this article, I will not focus on Clement’s views on art, but rather his view of beauty. I will argue that Clement of Alexandria’s aesthetics in the Paedagogus is best understood in his vision of Christ the Creator as the ideal beauty and that humankind partakes in True Beauty when human ethics align with Christ’s moral law.

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THEOLOGY INSPIRING DOXOLOGY: The Hymnic Language of Anne Dutton and Anne Steele

Holly M. Farrow

When faithful to Scripture, theology and doxology are noble, faith-filled endeavors offered by believers to the glory of God, in the name of Jesus Christ, through the power of the Holy Spirit. Scholars have observed that a close, reciprocal connection exists between theology and doxology: Kevin Vanhoozer affirms that “praising God is a theological activity” while James Torrance states that “true theology is theology that sings.” In the view of Teresa Berger, the topic warrants additional consideration because few works exist that fully explore the nature of the relationship between theology and doxology—and those that do are usually philosophically abstract and not built upon an examination of actual doxological material (such as hymns). This study will contribute such an analysis, utilizing the hymnody of two British hymn writers of the eighteenth century: Particular Baptists Anne Dutton (1692–1765) and her younger contemporary Anne Steele (1717–1778).

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David W. Music

The tradition of American Protestant church choirs performing lengthy choral works at Christmas, Easter, and other times of the year is one that was almost taken for granted until recently. These works, often labeled “oratorio,” “cantata,” “musical,” or some other designation, were intended to give heightened emphasis to a particular season, celebration, or event; serve as a challenge to the choir; provide an outreach opportunity into the community; or all of these simultaneously. The compositions thus offered ranged from classic oratorios by Europeans such as Bach, Handel, Mendelssohn, and Brahms to functional works written by U.S. compos­ers that were designed specifically for the church choir of modest means and abilities.

In 1986, Thurston J. Dox published American Oratorios and Cantatas, a bibliography of major vocal works by American composers from colo­nial times to 1985. This comprehensive catalog lists more than 3,000 published and unpublished items that were designated “cantatas” by their composers or by others. Dox’s bibliography is a masterful achievement that has deservedly become a standard resource in the field of American choral music.

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WRATH IN WORSHIP?: An Analysis of the “Wrath of God” Controversy Surrounding Getty and Townend’s “In Christ Alone”

James Cheesman

Few topics cause such discord among theologians as the wrath of God. Jeremy Wynne declares it “one of the more elusive of scriptural themes.” In modern hymnody, divine wrath has not only been an “elusive theme,” but a divisive and controversial one.

In 2010, the Celebrating Grace hymnal altered a lyric in Keith Getty and Stuart Townend’s “In Christ Alone.” The hymnal editors changed the line “Till on that cross as Jesus died, the wrath of God was satisfied,” to read, “Till on that cross as Jesus died, the love of God was magnified.” Since the editorial team did not receive consent to the lyric change, they reinstated the original wording in 2013 and subsequent printings.6 Later hymnals, including the Presbyterian Church U.S.A.’s Glory to God (2013), did not include the hymn because some hymnal committees deemed the song to contain questionable theology. Mary Louise Bringle, chair of the committee for Glory to God, cited the issue as the hymn espousing “the view that the cross is primarily about God’s need to assuage God’s anger.” Hymnologist C. Michael Hawn joined Bringle in denouncing the allusion to Anselm’s satisfaction view of the atonement. Many others have impugned the idea of God’s wrath, seeing it as incongruent with God’s love. Conversely, Timothy George responded by defending “In Christ Alone” and simultaneously denouncing the tendency of modern theologians to downplay God’s attributes of justice, wrath, and holiness.

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WORSHIP—BEFORE AND AFTER: Completing the Ethnodoxology Cycle

John L. Benham

At the initial Global Consultation on Music and Missions (GCOMM) in September 2003 at Southwestern Baptist Theological Seminary, key­note speaker John Piper reminded participants that “Missions is not the ultimate goal of the church. Worship is. Missions exists because worship doesn’t. Worship is ultimate, not missions, because God is ultimate, not man,” and “Worship is … the fuel and goal of missions.” The statements emphasize the close relationship between the life of the believer within the walls of the church and outside its walls in relationship to a lost world, that is, as Christ’s worshipers we are His “image-bearer” to those who seek Him or have never heard (Acts 1:8).

This article emphasizes the missional aspects of the work of the eth­nodoxologist in three distinct stages: (1) before the planting of a church, (2) during the planting and development of the church, and (3) after the planting of the church. The arts are key to understanding and accessing cul­ture; the planting and development of the church in worship, discipleship, and evangelism; and the equipping of national leadership. The purpose here is to clarify and demonstrate the complexities related to the use of the arts, in particular music, in cross-cultural ministry.

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Kimberly Drew Arnold, PhD. “A Civil War In Zion”: Comparing Theology And Hymnody In The Revivals Of Asahel Nettleton And Charles Finney

Eun Ju Kim, PhD. One-Mile-Wide, One-Inch-Deep: A Case Study Of The Indigenization Of Global Pentecostal Worship In A Yoruba Context

Braden Joseph McKinley, PhD. Rehearsing Our Redemption: How Liturgical Confession Shapes Our Life In The Gospel

Mimi Zheng, DEdMin. Developing A Biblical Principle Of Worship Curriculum For The Choir At First Chinese Baptist Church, San Antonio, Tx

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Book Reviews

Beale, G. K. We Become What We Worship: A Biblical Theology of Idolatry (J. Shaw)

Begbie, Jeremy. Abundantly More: The Theological Promise of the Arts in a Reductionist World (J. Cheesman)

Cherry, Constance M. The Worship Architect: A Blueprint for Designing Culturally Relevant and Biblically Faithful Services (J. Shaw)

Copeland, David A. Benjamin Keach and the Development of Baptist Traditions in Seventeenth-Century England (C. Broussard)

Guenther, Eileen. In Their Own Words: Slave Life and the Power of Spirituals (A. Beck)

Hicks, Zac. Worship by Faith Alone: Thomas Cranmer, The Book of Common Prayer, and the Reformation of Liturgy (J. Arrowood)

Lemley, David. Becoming What We Sing: Formation Through Contemporary Worship Music (W. Treadway)

Man, Ron. Let Us Draw Near: Biblical Foundations of Worship (J. Crider)

Stanton, Matthew. Liturgy and Identity: London Baptists and the Hymn-Singing Controversy (C. Correlli)

Taylor, W. David O. A Body of Praise: Understanding the Role of Our Physical Bodies in Worship (M. Brown)

Zon, Bennett. Music and Metaphor in Nineteenth-Century British Musicology (E. Nolan)